Validation of the Dependency-Oriented and Achievement-Oriented Psychological Control Scale in Middle Childhood

Miri Scharf, Sofie Rousseau, Yael Smith

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


The psychometric properties of the Dependency-oriented and Achievement-oriented Psychological Control Scale (DAPCS) have been proved appropriate for adolescent samples. Since parental psychological control plays a key role in the development of child pathology from an early age, it is important to evaluate the DAPCS in younger samples too. We examine the DAPCS’ validity in two samples of elementary school age children (n = 180 and n = 118). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses in the first sample supported a two-factor structure, indicating the distinction between dependency-oriented psychological control (DPC) and achievement-oriented psychological control (APC). Confirmatory factor analysis in the second sample resulted in successful replication of the factor structure. Significant negative correlations between both parental psychological control dimensions and parental emotional support indicated the convergent validity of the scale. Discriminant validity was indicated by a significant unique association between higher levels of DPC and child perceived social problems, and higher levels of APC and child sensitivity to mistakes. This study provides initial justification for the application of a shorter version of the DAPCS in clinical and research settings dealing with parental psychological control in middle childhood and related child adjustment problems.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1200-1207
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Child and Family Studies
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1 Apr 2016
Externally publishedYes


  • Domain
  • Middle childhood
  • Psychological control
  • Validity


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