Trajectories of attachment in older age: interpersonal trauma and its consequences

Rahel Bachem, Yafit Levin, Zahava Solomon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


Previous studies suggest that attachment insecurities may increase after trauma exposure, an effect documented only at a group level. This study explores the heterogeneity of changes over time and examines the associations of the nature of the traumatic event (interpersonal and nonpersonal), and its consequences (posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD] and loneliness) with attachment trajectories. Two groups of Israeli veterans participated: 164 former prisoners-of-war and 185 combat veterans. Attachment was assessed at four points (1991–2015). Risk factors were evaluated in 1991. Using latent growth mixture modeling, trajectories of attachment insecurities were explored. Three avoidance trajectories (stability, decrease, inverse u-shaped) and two anxiety trajectories (stability, decrease) were identified. The inverse u-shaped avoidance trajectory was associated with captivity, humiliation, loneliness, and PTSD, and stable avoidance was associated with loneliness. Stable anxiety was associated with captivity and loneliness. Attachment insecurities can change during aging and persist decades after a trauma. Trauma-related risk factors are related to more deleterious trajectories.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)352-371
Number of pages20
JournalAttachment and Human Development
Issue number4
StatePublished - 4 Jul 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • Attachment insecurities
  • older age
  • risk factor
  • trajectories
  • war trauma


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