The toll of a second lockdown: A longitudinal study

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Background The mental health toll of a second lockdown during the COVID-19 pandemic has not been yet examined. The purpose of the study was to examine psychological predictors before the second lockdown and their impact on the prediction of ICD-11 probable Adjustment Disorder (AjD) after the second lockdown. Methods Using a longitudinal design we surveyed a national representative sample of the Israeli population before and after the second lockdown. In wave 1, 1029 were surveyed (Response Rate (RR) = 76.17%) and in Wave 2, 764 were surveyed (RR = 74.24%). Participants answer a questionnaire tapping COVID-19 stressful related events, uncertainty, probable depression predicting ICD-11 and probable AjD. Results The main predictors of AjD after the second lockdown were sex (OR = 1.868; p ≤0.01), having a COVID-19 occupational related stressful event (OR = 2.855; p <0.001), probable depression (OR = 2.520; p <0.001) and Uncertainty (OR = 4.485; p <0.001). Limitations We recognise the limitations of response bias. In addition, we did not measure pre COVID-19 mental health. Conclusions The study results show the mental toll of a second lockdown during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)60-62
Number of pages3
JournalJournal of Affective Disorders
StatePublished - 1 Nov 2021


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