The Effects of Psychophysical Methods on Spectral and Spatial TOJ Thresholds

Leah Fostick, Harvey Babkoff

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


(1) Background: A large number of studies have used different psychophysical methods for measuring temporal order judgment (TOJ) thresholds, which makes it difficult to compare the results of different studies. In this study, we aimed to compare the thresholds measured by the two main procedures used in many studies, the adaptive procedure, and the method of constant stimuli; (2) Methods: Study 1 tested spatial TOJ and included 109 participants, 50 using the adaptive procedure and 59 using the constant stimuli procedure. Study 2 tested spectral TOJ and included 223 participants, 119 using the adaptive procedure and 104 using constant stimuli; (3) Results: Both the spatial and spectral TOJ results showed no difference between the psychophysical methods, either in (1) the form of the distribution; (2) the mean; or (3) the standard deviation. However, Bayesian analysis showed a large Bayes factor only for spatial TOJ; (4) Conclusions: There is no difference between spatial TOJ thresholds measured by an adaptive procedure and the method of constant stimuli, and their results can be compared across studies. A similar conclusion can be drawn also for spectral TOJ, but should be considered more cautiously.

Original languageEnglish
Article number4830
Issue number13
StatePublished - 1 Jul 2022


  • adaptive procedure
  • method of constant stimuli
  • spatial temporal order judgment (TOJ)
  • spectral TOJ


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