Synthesis of Titanium Oxide Nanotubes Loaded with Hydroxyapatite

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A simple method of synthesis of TiO2 nanotubes (TiNT) loaded with hydroxyapatite (HAP) is described. Such nanotubes find wide applications in various fields, including biomedicine, solar cells, and drug delivery, due to their bioactivity and potential for osseointegration. The Cp-Ti substrate was anodized at a constant voltage of 40 V, with the subsequent heat treatment at 450 °C. The resulting TiNT had a diameter of 100.3 ± 2.8 nm and a length of 3.5 ± 0.04 μm. The best result of the growth rate of HAP in Hanks’ balanced salt solution (Hanks’ BSS) was obtained in calcium glycerophosphate (CG = 0.1 g/L) when precipitates formed on the bottom and walls of the nanotubes. Structural properties, surface wettability, corrosion resistance, and growth rate of HAP as an indicator of the bioactivity of the coating have been studied. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), potentiodynamic polarization test (PPC), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and contact angle (CA) measurements were used to characterize HAP-loaded nanotubes (HAP-TiNT). The CA, also serving as an indirect indicator of bioactivity, was 30.4 ± 1.1° for the TiNT not containing HAP. The contact angle value for HAP-TiNT produced in 0.1 g/L CG was 18.2 ± 1.2°, and for HAP-TiNT exposed to Hanks’ BSS for 7 days, the CA was 7.2 ± 0.5°. The corrosion studies and measurement of HAP growth rates after a 7-day exposure to Hanks’ BSS confirmed the result that TiNT processed in 0.1 g/L of CG exhibited the most significant capacity for HAP formation compared to the other tested samples.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2743
Issue number20
StatePublished - Oct 2023


  • anodizing
  • biomedical applications
  • corrosion resistance
  • growth kinetics
  • hydroxyapatite
  • titanium oxide nanotubes


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