Sustainable Automated Mobility-On-Demand Strategies in Dense Urban Areas: A Case Study of the Tel Aviv Metropolis in 2040

Bat Hen Nahmias-Biran, Gabriel Dadashev, Yedidya Levi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The emergence of automated mobility-on-demand (AMoD) services in urban regions has underscored crucial issues concerning the sustainable advancement of urban mobility. In particular, the impact of various AMoD implementation strategies in dense, transit-oriented cities has yet to be investigated in a generalized manner. To address this gap, we quantify the effects of AMoD on trip patterns, congestion, and energy and emissions in a dense, transit-oriented prototype city via high-fidelity simulation. We employ an activity- and agent-based framework, with specific demand and supply considerations for both single and shared AMoD rides. Our findings suggest that, in densely populated, transit-oriented cities such as the Tel Aviv metropolis, AMoD contributes to higher congestion levels and increased passenger vehicle kilometers traveled (VKT). However, when AMoD is integrated with public transit systems or introduced alongside measures to reduce household car ownership, it helps alleviate the VKT impact. Furthermore, these combined approaches effectively counter the negative impact of AMoD on public transit ridership. None of the AMoD strategies analyzed in our study reduce the congestion effects of AMoD and all strategies cannibalize active mobility in dense, transit-oriented cities compared to the base case. Nevertheless, our analysis reveals that a policy leading to decreased car ownership proves to be a more efficient measure in curbing energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions.

Original languageEnglish
Article number16037
JournalSustainability (Switzerland)
Issue number22
StatePublished - Nov 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • activity-based simulation
  • automated mobility on demand
  • sustainability
  • urban mobility


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