Subjective overload and psychological distress among dentists during COVID-19

Eitan Mijiritsky, Yaira Hamama-Raz, Feng Liu, Abhay N. Datarkar, Luca Mangani, Julian Caplan, Anna Shacham, Roni Kolerman, Ori Mijiritsky, Menachem Ben-Ezra, Maayan Shacham

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

58 Scopus citations


Psychological distress during the COVID-19 pandemic is not solely limited to SARS-CoV-2 infection. It may also be related to social, cultural, and environmental factors, which may act as additional stressors. The aim of the current study was to explore the association between psychological distress and subjective overload among dentists in different countries, and whether it is associated with COVID-19-related factors. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 1302 dentists from China, India, Israel, Italy, and the UK, who filled out demographics data, COVID-19-related factor questions, subjective overload, and psychological distress scales. Our findings showed that the positive association between subjective overload and psychological distress was different among countries, suggesting higher rate of intensity in Italy compared to China, India, and Israel (the UK was near significance with China and Israel). The interaction variable of the subjective overload × psychological distress was significantly associated with a particular country, with those individuals reporting fear of contracting COVID-19 from patients, fear of their families contracting COVID-19, and receiving enough professional knowledge regarding COVID-19. Given the above, dentists were found to have elevated levels of subjective overload and psychological distress, which differed among the countries, presumably due to certain background issues such as social, cultural, and environmental factors.

Original languageEnglish
Article number5074
Pages (from-to)1-10
Number of pages10
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Issue number14
StatePublished - 2 Jul 2020


  • COVID-19
  • Occupational dentistry
  • Psychological distress
  • Psychosocial factors
  • Stress
  • Subjective overload


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