Single Step Double-walled Nanoencapsulation (SSDN)

Aharon Azagury, Vera C. Fonseca, Daniel Y. Cho, James Perez-Rogers, Christopher M. Baker, Elaine Steranka, Victoria Goldenshtein, Dominick Calvao, Eric M. Darling, Edith Mathiowitz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


A quick fabrication method for making double-walled (DW) polymeric nanospheres is presented. The process uses sequential precipitation of two polymers. By choosing an appropriate solvent and non-solvent polymer pair, and engineering two sequential phase inversions which induces first precipitation of the core polymer followed by precipitation of the shell polymer, DW nanospheres can be created instantaneously. A series of DW formulations were prepared with various core and shell polymers, then characterized using laser diffraction particle sizing, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging confirmed existence of a single core polymer coated with a second polymer. Insulin (3.3% loading) was used as a model drug to assess its release profile from core (PLGA) and shell (PBMAD) polymers and resulted with a tri-phase release profile in vitro for two months. Current approaches for producing DW nanoparticles (NPs) are limited by the complexity and time involved. Additional issues include aggregation and entrapment of multiple spheres and the undesired formation of heterogeneous coatings. Therefore, the technique presented here is advantageous because it can produce NPs with distinct, core-shell morphologies through a rapid, spontaneous, self-assembly process. This method not only produces DW NPs, but can also be used to encapsulate therapeutic drug. Furthermore, modification of this process to other core and shell polymers is feasible using the general guidelines provided in this paper.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)11-19
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Controlled Release
StatePublished - 28 Jun 2018
Externally publishedYes


  • AFM
  • DSC
  • Double-walled nanoparticles
  • Nanoparticles production method
  • Polymers’ mixtures


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