Selecting ultracapacitors for smoothing voltage deviations in local grids fed by transformer with tap-changer and distributed pv facilities

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Widespread use of photovoltaic (PV) small and middle-power plants close or inside existing townships and villages may cause significant deviations of the grid voltage. Owing to the oscillation of solar irradiation and corresponding power flows these voltage instabilities can damage equipment and must be prevented. Designated for the voltage regulation tap-changers in distribution transformers located in a significant distance of such settlements have a sluggish response time. As a possible answer for their delay is the smoothing energy of flows in PV power installation by intermittent capacitor low-pass filtering (LPF) located near those PV facilities. The application of ultracapacitors (UC) for LPF is remarkable due to their sustainability and relatively low costs of energy storage. The parameters selection of such appliances is a well-designed procedure for linear circuits. However, DC–AC inverters in PV facilities are represented by a power (instead of a voltage) source. As a result, the total circuit including such LPF becomes a non-linear and its transient process and consequently, its efficiency is difficult to assess requiring each time of development the UC storage an application complex numerical procedure. Engineers are usual to work with linear circuits that are describing fine by a time constant is designated as a multiplication of a capacitance times load equivalent resistance. In the case of PV DC–AC inverters, such an approach can be applied as well but a value of a time constant should be corrected. Considering a significant cost of UC storage, the non-optimal selection of a correcting coefficient may cause considerable loses. Submitted in the presented article is an original approximation procedure giving an efficiently approachable technique to select correcting coefficient for describing non-linear dynamic process by its linear analog. This way the development low-pass UC filtering in electrical systems with PV plants becomes more efficient and simpler task.

Original languageEnglish
Article number357
JournalElectronics (Switzerland)
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2019


  • Linearization approximation
  • Low-pass filtering
  • PV plants
  • Power flow
  • RC circuit
  • Transient process


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