Screening of adjustment disorder: Scale based on the ICD-11 and the Adjustment Disorder New Module

Menachem Ben-Ezra, Michal Mahat-Shamir, Louisa Lorenz, Osnat Lavenda, Andreas Maercker

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

50 Scopus citations


In line with ICD-11 new conceptualization of Adjustment disorder (AjD), a self-report Adjustment Disorder–New Module (ADNM) was developed and validated. Nevertheless, the ADNM-20 is a long research tool and potentially problematic in the use in epidemiological and clinical studies. The present study introduces the brief ADNM-8 and the ultra-brief ADNM-4, examines their validity and establishes cut-off scores for their clinical use. The study used a representative national sample of 1003 Israelis who reported on the ICD-11 stress spectrum ranging from AjD, PTSD, complex PTSD and complicated grief. Construct validity was assessed via confirmatory factor analysis and cut-off scores were established through ROC analysis. The original and brief instruments were highly correlated (r > 0.918 or better). Cronbach's Alpha for the Brief ADNM-8 and the Ultra-Brief ADNM-4 were above 0.800. Correlations with stress related conditions indicated a good convergent and construct validity for both instruments as well. The ultra-brief ADNM-4 was found to have a very good fit with the data. These findings indicate that the brief ADNM-8 and the ultra-brief ADNM-4 can serve as a brief screening tools for assessing AjD symptoms according to the ICD-11 definition.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)91-96
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Psychiatric Research
StatePublished - Aug 2018


  • Adjustment disorder
  • ICD-11
  • Screening
  • Stress-related disorders


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