Robust PT symmetry of two-dimensional fundamental and vortex solitons supported by spatially modulated nonlinearity

Eitam Luz, Vitaly Lutsky, Er’el Granot, Boris A. Malomed

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The real spectrum of bound states produced by PT-symmetric Hamiltonians usually suffers breakup at a critical value of the strength of gain-loss terms, i.e., imaginary part of the complex potential. The breakup essentially impedes the use of PT-symmetric systems for various applications. On the other hand, it is known that the PT symmetry can be made unbreakable in a one-dimensional (1D) model with self-defocusing nonlinearity whose strength grows fast enough from the center to periphery. The model is nonlinearizable, i.e., it does not have a linear spectrum, while the (unbreakable) PT symmetry in it is defined by spectra of continuous families of nonlinear self-trapped states (solitons). Here we report results for a 2D nonlinearizable model whose PT symmetry remains unbroken for arbitrarily large values of the gain-loss coefficient. Further, we introduce an extended 2D model with the imaginary part of potential ~xy in the Cartesian coordinates. The latter model is not a PT-symmetric one, but it also supports continuous families of self-trapped states, thus suggesting an extension of the concept of the PT symmetry. For both models, universal analytical forms are found for nonlinearizable tails of the 2D modes, and full exact solutions are produced for particular solitons, including ones with the unbreakable PT symmetry, while generic soliton families are found in a numerical form. The PT-symmetric system gives rise to generic families of stable single- and double-peak 2D solitons (including higher-order radial states of the single-peak solitons), as well as families of stable vortex solitons with m = 1, 2, and 3. In the model with imaginary potential ~xy, families of single- and multi-peak solitons and vortices are stable if the imaginary potential is subject to spatial confinement. In an elliptically deformed version of the latter model, an exact solution is found for vortex solitons with m = 1.

Original languageEnglish
Article number4483
JournalScientific Reports
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1 Dec 2019


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