Retarded Gravity in Disk Galaxies

Yuval Glass, Tomer Zimmerman, Asher Yahalom

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Disk galaxies have a typical dimension of a few tens of kiloparsecs. It follows from the theory of general relativity that any signal originating from the galactic center will be noticed at the outskirts of the galaxy only tens of thousands of years later. This retardation effect, however, is absent in modelling used to calculate rotation curves throughout entire galaxies and their external gas. The considerable differences between Newtonian predictions and observed velocities are currently removed either by assuming dark matter or by suggesting various modifications to the laws of gravity, MOND being a long standing alternative to Newtonian gravity. In previous papers we have shown that by applying general relativity in a rigorous fashion, without neglecting retardation, one can explain the rotational velocities of galactic matter without modifying gravity or adding dark matter. Moreover, it was shown that dark matter effects, as they appear in gravitational lensing, the Tully-Fisher relation, and mass estimations based on the virial theorem could also be explained as retarded-gravity effects. It must be noted, however, that the proposed theory relies on the existence of a mass flow (of a changing rate) into the galaxy; a requirement that was not directly observed. In the original paper on the subject only one galaxy (M33) was analysed in detail. This was later amended with a published study of eleven galaxies. Here we give a more comprehensive retardation analysis of 143 galaxies of different types from the SPARC Galaxy collection. We show that in most cases we obtain very accurate fits to the data.

Original languageEnglish
Article number387
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2024


  • dark matter
  • general relativity
  • MOND
  • retardation


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