Predicting Professional Quality of Life among Professional and Volunteer Caregivers

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18 Scopus citations


This study is one of the few that has compared volunteersa professional quality of life (PQL), which includes secondary traumatic stress (STS), burnout, and compassion satisfaction (CS), to those of professional caregivers. In addition, the research compared the ethical behavior of volunteers with that of professional therapists and examined the connection between years of experience, ethical behavior, and PQL. One hundred eighty-three volunteers and professional caregivers filled out a sociodemographic questionnaire, an Ethical Behavior Questionnaire and the Professional Quality of Life (ProQOL) questionnaire. The results indicated that professional caregivers report lower levels of STS and burnout, and higher levels of CS and ethical behavior compared with volunteer caregivers. Moreover, the findings suggest that ethical behavior correlates with STS, burnout, and CS. Ethical behavior has a protective value for mental health caregivers. The discussion emphasizes the value of a professional code of ethics and ethical training for professional and volunteering caregivers.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)80-87
Number of pages8
JournalPsychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2016


  • burnout
  • ethical behavior
  • secondary traumatic stress


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