TY - UNPB

T1 - On Minimal Critical Independent Sets of Almost Bipartite non-Konig-Egervary Graphs

AU - Levit, Vadim E.

AU - Mandrescu, Eugen

N1 - 12 pages, 7 figures. arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:1905.09462

PY - 2022/9/1

Y1 - 2022/9/1

N2 - The independence number $\alpha(G)$ is the cardinality of a maximum independent set, while $\mu(G)$ is the size of a maximum matching in $G$. If $\alpha(G)+\mu(G)$ equals the order of $G$, then $G$ is called a Konig-Egervary graph. The number $d\left( G\right) =\max\{\left\vert A\right\vert -\left\vert N\left( A\right) \right\vert :A\subseteq V\}$ is called the critical difference of $G$ (where $N\left( A\right) =\left\{ v:v\in V,N\left( v\right) \cap A\neq\emptyset\right\} $). It is known that $\alpha(G)-\mu(G)\leq d\left( G\right) $ holds for every graph. A graph $G$ is unicyclic if it has a unique cycle and almost bipartite if it has only one odd cycle. Let $\mathrm{\ker}(G)=\bigcap\left\{ S:S\text{ is a critical independent set}\right\} $, $\mathrm{core}\left( G\right) $ be the intersection of all maximum independent sets, and $\mathrm{corona}\left( G\right) $ be the union of all maximum independent sets of $G$. It is known that $\mathrm{\ker}(G)\subseteq\mathrm{core}(G)$ is true for every graph, while the equality holds for bipartite graphs, and for unicyclic non-Konig-Egervary graphs. In this paper, we prove that if $G$ is an almost bipartite non-Konig-Egervary graph, then $\mathrm{\ker}(G)=$ $\mathrm{core}(G)$, $\mathrm{corona}(G)$ $\cup$ $N(\mathrm{core} \left( G\right) )=V(G)$, and $\left\vert \mathrm{corona}(G)\right\vert +\left\vert \mathrm{core}(G)\right\vert =2\alpha(G)+1$.

AB - The independence number $\alpha(G)$ is the cardinality of a maximum independent set, while $\mu(G)$ is the size of a maximum matching in $G$. If $\alpha(G)+\mu(G)$ equals the order of $G$, then $G$ is called a Konig-Egervary graph. The number $d\left( G\right) =\max\{\left\vert A\right\vert -\left\vert N\left( A\right) \right\vert :A\subseteq V\}$ is called the critical difference of $G$ (where $N\left( A\right) =\left\{ v:v\in V,N\left( v\right) \cap A\neq\emptyset\right\} $). It is known that $\alpha(G)-\mu(G)\leq d\left( G\right) $ holds for every graph. A graph $G$ is unicyclic if it has a unique cycle and almost bipartite if it has only one odd cycle. Let $\mathrm{\ker}(G)=\bigcap\left\{ S:S\text{ is a critical independent set}\right\} $, $\mathrm{core}\left( G\right) $ be the intersection of all maximum independent sets, and $\mathrm{corona}\left( G\right) $ be the union of all maximum independent sets of $G$. It is known that $\mathrm{\ker}(G)\subseteq\mathrm{core}(G)$ is true for every graph, while the equality holds for bipartite graphs, and for unicyclic non-Konig-Egervary graphs. In this paper, we prove that if $G$ is an almost bipartite non-Konig-Egervary graph, then $\mathrm{\ker}(G)=$ $\mathrm{core}(G)$, $\mathrm{corona}(G)$ $\cup$ $N(\mathrm{core} \left( G\right) )=V(G)$, and $\left\vert \mathrm{corona}(G)\right\vert +\left\vert \mathrm{core}(G)\right\vert =2\alpha(G)+1$.

KW - math.CO

KW - cs.DM

KW - 05C69 (Primary) 05C70 (Secondary)

KW - G.2.2

M3 - פרסום מוקדם

BT - On Minimal Critical Independent Sets of Almost Bipartite non-Konig-Egervary Graphs

ER -