TY - JOUR

T1 - Nonpreemptive scheduling of optical switches

AU - Kesselman, Alex

AU - Kogan, Kirill

PY - 2007/6

Y1 - 2007/6

N2 - Many high-speed routers today use input-queuing (IQ) architectures with a crossbar switching fabric based on optical technology. Packets in the input queues are divided into cells of unit length, and the goal is to find a schedule of minimum makespan that forwards all packets to the output ports. The problem is complicated since, in optical switches, so-called configuration delay, that is the time required to reconfigure the switching fabric, is non-negligible with respect to the cell transmission time. We aim to design a scheduler whose complexity does not depend on the number of packets in the input queues. Thus, we focus on the nonpreemptive bipartite scheduling (NPBS) problem, where each input queue is connected to each output port in at most one configuration. We demonstrate that the NPBS problem is NP-hard for any value of the configuration delay, and approximation within a ratio smaller than 7/6 is NP-hard as well. For the offline version of the NPBS problem, we show that a simple greedy algorithm achieves an approximation factor of 2 for arbitrary configuration delay. Then, we consider the online version of the NPBS problem, where the switch gathers the incoming traffic periodically and then schedules the accumulated batches. We propose a scheduling algorithm that guarantees strict delay for any admissible traffic, provided that the switch has a moderate speed-up of two. Finally, we extend our results to the nonbipartite scheduling problem.

AB - Many high-speed routers today use input-queuing (IQ) architectures with a crossbar switching fabric based on optical technology. Packets in the input queues are divided into cells of unit length, and the goal is to find a schedule of minimum makespan that forwards all packets to the output ports. The problem is complicated since, in optical switches, so-called configuration delay, that is the time required to reconfigure the switching fabric, is non-negligible with respect to the cell transmission time. We aim to design a scheduler whose complexity does not depend on the number of packets in the input queues. Thus, we focus on the nonpreemptive bipartite scheduling (NPBS) problem, where each input queue is connected to each output port in at most one configuration. We demonstrate that the NPBS problem is NP-hard for any value of the configuration delay, and approximation within a ratio smaller than 7/6 is NP-hard as well. For the offline version of the NPBS problem, we show that a simple greedy algorithm achieves an approximation factor of 2 for arbitrary configuration delay. Then, we consider the online version of the NPBS problem, where the switch gathers the incoming traffic periodically and then schedules the accumulated batches. We propose a scheduling algorithm that guarantees strict delay for any admissible traffic, provided that the switch has a moderate speed-up of two. Finally, we extend our results to the nonbipartite scheduling problem.

KW - Nonpreemptive scheduling

KW - Optical switches

KW - Store and forward networks

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=34347385032&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1109/TCOMM.2007.898848

DO - 10.1109/TCOMM.2007.898848

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AN - SCOPUS:34347385032

SN - 0090-6778

VL - 55

SP - 1212

EP - 1219

JO - IEEE Transactions on Communications

JF - IEEE Transactions on Communications

IS - 6

ER -