## Abstract

Newton’s third law states that any action is countered by a reaction of equal magnitude but opposite direction. The total force in a system not affected by external forces is, therefore, zero. However, according to the principles of relativity, a signal cannot propagate at speeds exceeding the speed of light. Hence, the action and reaction cannot be generated at the same time due to the relativity of simultaneity. Thus, the total force cannot be null at a given time. In a previous paper, we showed that Newton’s third law cannot strictly hold in a distributed system where the different parts are at a finite distance from each other. This analysis led to the suggestion of a relativistic engine. As the system is affected by a total force for a finite period, the system acquires mechanical momentum and energy. The subject of momentum conversation was discussed in another previous paper, while energy conservation was discussed in additional previous papers. In those works, we relied on the fact that the bodies were macroscopically natural. Here, we relax this assumption and study charged bodies, thus analyzing the consequences on a possible electric relativistic engine.

Original language | English |
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Article number | 1250 |

Journal | Symmetry |

Volume | 13 |

Issue number | 7 |

DOIs | |

State | Published - Jul 2021 |

## Keywords

- Electromagnetism
- Newton’s third law
- Relativity