Millimeter wave high resolution radar accuracy in fog conditions—theory and experimental verification

Yosef Golovachev, Ariel Etinger, Gad A. Pinhasi, Yosef Pinhasi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

34 Scopus citations


Attenuation and group delay effects on millimeter wave (MMW) propagation in clouds and fog are studied theoretically and verified experimentally using high resolution radar in an indoor space filled with artificial fog. In the theoretical analysis, the frequency-dependent attenuation and group delay were derived via the permittivity of the medium. The results are applied to modify the millimeter-wave propagation model (MPM) and employed to study the effect of fog and cloud on the accuracy of the Frequency-Modulated Continuous-Wave (FMCW) radar operating in millimeter wavelengths. Artificial fog was generated in the experimental study to demonstrate ultra-low visibility in a confined space. The resulted attenuation and group delay were measured using FMCW radar operating at 320–330 GHz. It was found that apart from the attenuation, the incremental group delay caused by the fog also played a role in the accuracy of the radar. The results were compared to the analytical model. It was shown that although the artificial fog has slight different characteristics compare to the natural fog and clouds, in particle composition, size, and density, the model predictions were good, pointing out that the dispersive effects should be considered in the design of remote sensing radars operating in millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelengths.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2148
Issue number7
StatePublished - 4 Jul 2018


  • Atmosphere
  • Extremely high frequencies
  • FMCW radar
  • Millimeter waves
  • Tera-Hertz frequencies


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