Measurement invariance of the Phubbing Scale across 20 countries

Agata Błachnio, Aneta Przepiórka, Oleg Gorbaniuk, Rebecca Bendayan, Monika McNeill, Alan Angeluci, Ana Maria Abreu, Menachem Ben-Ezra, Martina Benvenuti, Maria J. Blanca, Tihana Brkljacic, Nenad Čuš Babić, Julia Gorbaniuk, Juraj Holdoš, Ana Ivanova, Engin Karadağ, Sadia Malik, Elvis Mazzoni, Anita Milanovic, Bojan MusilIgor Pantic, Belen Rando, Gwendolyn Seidman, Lancy D'Souza, Mariek M.P. Vanden Abeele, Mariusz Wołońciej, Anise M.S. Wu, Shu Yu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


Mobile phone addiction is a robust phenomenon observed throughout the world. The social aspect of mobile phone use is crucial; therefore, phubbing is a part of the mobile phone addiction phenomenon. Phubbing is defined as ignoring an interlocutor by glancing at one's mobile phone during a face-to-face conversation. The main aim of this study was to investigate how the Phubbing Scale (containing 10 items) might vary across countries, and between genders. Data were collected in 20 countries: Belarus, Brazil, China, Croatia, Ecuador, India, Israel, Italy, Netherlands, Pakistan, Poland, Portugal, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Turkey, UK, Ukraine and USA. The mean age across the sample (N = 7696, 65.8% women, 34.2% men) was 25.32 years (SD = 9.50). The cross-cultural invariance of the scale was investigated using multigroup confirmatory factor analyses (MGCFA) as well as the invariance analyses. Additionally, data from each country were assessed individually via confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs). We obtained two factors, based on only eight of the items: (a) communication disturbances and (b) phone obsession. The 8 items Phubbing Scale.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)885-894
Number of pages10
JournalInternational Journal of Psychology
Issue number6
StatePublished - Dec 2021


  • Countries
  • Gender
  • Invariance
  • Mobile phone addiction
  • Phubbing


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