Long-term neurodevelopmental risks in children exposed in utero to cocaine the toronto adoption study

Gideon Koren, Irena Nulman, Joanne Rovet, Rachel Greenbaum, Michal Loebstein, Tom Einarson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

38 Scopus citations

Abstract

Children exposed in utero to cocaine are at risk for long-term neurobehavioral damage not just because of the drug itself, but also because of clustering of other health determinants, including low socioeconomic status, low maternal education, and maternal addiction, to mention a few. One methodologic approach to separate the direct neurotoxic effects of cocaine from these synergistic insults is to follow up a cohort of children exposed in utero to cocaine and given up for adoption to middle-upper class families. The Toronto Adoption Study, supported by Health Canada, has proven the direct neurotoxic effects of cocaine on IQ and language. These effects are mild to moderate as compared to those measured in children exposed in utero to cocaine and reared by their natural mothers.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)306-313
Number of pages8
JournalAnnals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Volume846
DOIs
StatePublished - 1998
Externally publishedYes

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