Learning in metaverse: the immersive atelier model of the architecture studio

Hadas Sopher, Laurent Lescop

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Purpose: This paper aims to describe the immersive atelier model (IAM), a pedagogical model for remote inter-university studios that promotes quality education. The IAM uses multi-user virtual environments (MUVEs) in two atelier types: A predefined MUVE and a student-shaped one. The study questions how the IAM, using MUVEs, meets the needs of remote inter-university studios. The research explores how MUVE types are used and experienced by students. Design/methodology/approach: Forty-six students that participated in a remote studio course involving three universities were monitored through observations and a post-course questionnaire, responded to by twenty-five students. Findings: Findings provide insights into the learners’ experience and a rich description of the teaching and learning acts that emerged while using the MUVEs types. Student-shaped MUVEs were found particularly supportive of acts associated with indirect learning and conceptualization. The study identifies subtypes of student-shaped MUVEs that support these desired educational acts. Research limitations/implications: Findings provide encouraging insights for expanding the traditional atelier beyond its physical constraints and supporting sustainable quality education in remote inter-university studios. Practical implications: The IAM can assist tutors in designing future virtual design studios to achieve diverse knowledge and learning progress. Social implications: This paper fulfills an identified need to update the atelier pedagogical model to support sustainable quality education in remote inter-university studios. Based on the affordances of MUVEs, the IAM expands the traditional atelier with types of virtual ateliers to support the learners’ sense of belongingness and engagement. Originality/value: Innovatively, the IAM simultaneously uses MUVEs as educational and design spaces that enhance learning.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)536-553
Number of pages18
JournalInternational Journal of Architectural Research: Archnet-IJAR
Issue number3
StatePublished - 11 Oct 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • Immersion
  • Learning experience
  • Learning spaces
  • Multi-user virtual environments
  • SDG
  • Virtual design studio


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