Introduction to behavioral addictions

Jon E. Grant, Marc N. Potenza, Aviv Weinstein, David A. Gorelick

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

810 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Several behaviors, besides psychoactive substance ingestion, produce short-term reward that may engender persistent behavior, despite knowledge of adverse consequences, i.e., diminished control over the behavior. These disorders have historically been conceptualized in several ways. One view posits these disorders as lying along an impulsive-compulsive spectrum, with some classified as impulse control disorders. An alternate, but not mutually exclusive, conceptualization considers the disorders as non-substance or "behavioral" addictions. Objectives: Inform the discussion on the relationship between psychoactive substance and behavioral addictions. Methods: We review data illustrating similarities and differences between impulse control disorders or behavioral addictions and substance addictions. This topic is particularly relevant to the optimal classification of these disorders in the forthcoming fifth edition of the American Psychiatric Association Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V). Results: Growing evidence suggests that behavioral addictions resemble substance addictions in many domains, including natural history, phenomenology, tolerance, comorbidity, overlapping genetic contribution, neurobiological mechanisms, and response to treatment, supporting the DSM-V Task Force proposed new category of Addiction and Related Disorders encompassing both substance use disorders and non-substance addictions. Current data suggest that this combined category may be appropriate for pathological gambling and a few other better studied behavioral addictions, e.g., Internet addiction. There is currently insufficient data to justify any classification of other proposed behavioral addictions. Conclusions and Scientific Significance: Proper categorization of behavioral addictions or impulse control disorders has substantial implications for the development of improved prevention and treatment strategies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)233-241
Number of pages9
JournalAmerican Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
Volume36
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 2010
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Behavioral addiction
  • Classification
  • Diagnosis
  • Impulse control disorder
  • Substance use disorder

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