Impact of extreme waves on a vertical wall

Gal Akrish, Rafael Schwartz, Oded Rabinovitch, Yehuda Agnon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


This study addresses the impact of nonlinear wave evolution on the resulting wave force values on a vertical wall. To this end, the problem of interaction between non-breaking water waves and a vertical wall over constant depth is investigated. The investigation is performed using a two-dimensional wave flume model which is based on the high-order spectral method. Wave generation is simulated at the flume entrance by means of the additional potential concept. This model enables to preserve full dispersivity. Therefore, the model enables to examine the role of nonlinear evolution in the formation of extreme wave force values on a vertical wall for a wide range of water depths. The results for the force exerted on a vertical wall are presented for shallow and deep water conditions. In shallow water, extreme wave force values occur due to the formation of an undular bore. In deep water, extreme wave forces have been obtained as a result of disintegration process of incident wave groups into envelope solitons. Multiple maximum force values have been detected for each of the highest run-up peaks. This phenomenon has been introduced in shallow water conditions and is extended here for deep water conditions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)637-653
Number of pages17
JournalNatural Hazards
StatePublished - 1 Nov 2016
Externally publishedYes


  • Extreme water waves
  • High-order spectral method
  • Nonlinear wave evolution
  • Vertical wall
  • Wave force
  • Wave run-up


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