Hybrid discrete-continuous model of invasive bladder cancer

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6 Scopus citations


Bladder cancer is the seventh most common cancer worldwide. Epidemiological studies and experiments implicated chemical penetration into urothelium (epithelial tissue surrounding bladder) in the etiology of bladder cancer. In this work we model invasive bladder cancer. This type of cancer starts in the urothelium and progresses towards surrounding muscles and tissues, causing metastatic disease. Our mathematical model of invasive BC consists of two coupled sub-models: (i) living cycle of the urothelial cells (normal and mutated) simulated using discrete technique of Cellular Automata and (ii) mechanism of tumor invasion described by the system of reaction-diffusion equations. Numerical simulations presented here are in good qualitative agreement with the experimental results and reproduce in vitro observations described in medical literature.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)729-742
Number of pages14
JournalMathematical Biosciences and Engineering
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jun 2013


  • Bladder cancer
  • Cellular automata
  • Metaloproteinases
  • Reaction-diffusion equations


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