Habituation of Fear—Israeli-Jewish Population during Protracted Belligerence

Meytal Eran-Jona, Roni Tiargan-Orr, Stephen Z. Levine, Yehiel Limor, Mordechai Schenhav, Uzi Ben-Shalom

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


The identification of demographic factors of vulnerability and resilience in communities facing belligerent conflicts is increasingly relevant today. This representative study aims to examine the effect of protracted violence on the level of fear of the overall Israeli-Jewish population, and the role of the conflict on the connection between socio-economic factors and fears. Sixty-six representative samples were identified and surveyed from 2001 to 2019 (n = 37,190) that occurred during (n = 14,362) and between (n = 22,828) seven conflicts and non-conflict periods. Results show that during military conflicts, civilians declared less fears of physical injury comparing routine time; a slow trend of decline in the level of fears over time was observed; during routine periods, fear was associated with female-gender and with the lowest income level group. Ultra-orthodox and Religious respondents had significantly less fear than the secular and traditional respondents. During military conflicts, the results changed significantly, mainly for the lowest income group, women and ultra-orthodox.

Original languageEnglish
Article number16067
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Issue number23
StatePublished - Dec 2022


  • COR theory
  • Israel
  • fears
  • low intensity conflict
  • public opinion
  • resiliency


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