Gender, employment, and continuous pandemic as predictors of alcohol and drug consumption during the COVID-19

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22 Scopus citations


Aims: This study aims to assess the impacts of the continuous pandemic state, gender and employment status on changes in substance use during the COVID-19 outbreak. Methods: A sample of 828 Israelis participated in an online survey and answered questions on demographic characteristics, ranking their substance consumption, and perceived increase in alcohol/drug consumption. The age range was 18–65 (Mean = 30.10, S.D. = 11.99), and the majority (72.9 %) were female. We gathered the data in two waves: 1) during and following the early first lockdown; 2) following the second lockdown. Results: Men reported higher beer, hard liquor, and illegal drug consumption than women. Continuous COVID-19 was associated with higher consumption of all alcohol, and cannabis, and higher perceived increases in substance consumption than short-term COVID-19. Significant interactions were found between gender and employment regarding all-drug consumption measurements and interactions between gender, employment, and pandemic duration (short/continuous) were found regarding cannabis consumption. Conclusions: The discussion addresses the results in the context of continuous COVID-19 and traditional gender roles. Policymakers should develop prevention and harm reduction interventions for substance use and abuse, focusing on unemployed men as an at-risk group.

Original languageEnglish
Article number109029
JournalDrug and Alcohol Dependence
StatePublished - 1 Nov 2021


  • Alcohol
  • Cannabis
  • Continuous COVID-19
  • Employment
  • Israel
  • Substance use


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