## Abstract

Physical roots, exemplifications and consequences of periodic and aperiodic ordering (represented by Fibonacci series) in biological systems are discussed. The physical and biological roots and role of symmetry and asymmetry appearing in biological patterns are addressed. A generalization of the Curie–Neumann principle as applied to biological objects is presented, briefly summarized as: “asymmetry is what creates a biological phenomenon”. The “top-down” and “bottom-up” approaches to the explanation of symmetry in organisms are presented and discussed in detail. The “top-down” approach implies that the symmetry of the biological structure follows the symmetry of the media in which this structure is functioning; the “bottom-up” approach, in turn, accepts that the symmetry of biological structures emerges from the symmetry of molecules constituting the structure. A diversity of mathematical measures applicable for quantification of order in biological patterns is introduced. The continuous, Shannon and Voronoi measures of symmetry/ordering and their application to biological objects are addressed. The fine structure of the notion of “order” is discussed. Informational/algorithmic roots of order inherent in the biological systems are considered. Ordered/symmetrical patterns provide an economy of biological information, necessary for the algorithmic description of a biological entity. The application of the Landauer principle bridging physics and theory of information to the biological systems is discussed.

Original language | English |
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Pages (from-to) | 292-307 |

Number of pages | 16 |

Journal | Biophysica |

Volume | 2 |

Issue number | 3 |

DOIs | |

State | Published - Sep 2022 |

## Keywords

- Curie principle
- Landauer principle
- Shannon measure of symmetry
- aperiodic ordering
- asymmetry
- biology
- continuous measure of symmetry
- information
- periodic ordering
- symmetry