Exercise-induced muscle damage: mechanism, assessment and nutritional factors to accelerate recovery

I. Markus, K. Constantini, J. R. Hoffman, S. Bartolomei, Yftach Gepner

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

65 Scopus citations


There have been a multitude of reviews written on exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) and recovery. EIMD is a complex area of study as there are a host of factors such as sex, age, nutrition, fitness level, genetics and familiarity with exercise task, which influence the magnitude of performance decrement and the time course of recovery following EIMD. In addition, many reviews on recovery from exercise have ranged from the impact of nutritional strategies and recovery modalities, to complex mechanistic examination of various immune and endocrine signaling molecules. No one review can adequately address this broad array of study. Thus, in this present review, we aim to examine EIMD emanating from both endurance exercise and resistance exercise training in recreational and competitive athletes and shed light on nutritional strategies that can enhance and accelerate recovery following EIMD. In addition, the evaluation of EIMD and recovery from exercise is often complicated and conclusions often depend of the specific mode of assessment. As such, the focus of this review is also directed at the available techniques used to assess EIMD.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)969-992
Number of pages24
JournalEuropean Journal of Applied Physiology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2021


  • Endurance
  • Exercise
  • Inflammation
  • Muscle damage
  • Nutrition
  • Strength


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