Evaluating Indoor Positioning Systems in a Shopping Mall: The Lessons Learned from the IPIN 2018 Competition

Valerie Renaudin, Miguel Ortiz, Johan Perul, Joaquin Torres-Sospedra, Antonio Ramon Jimenez, Antoni Perez-Navarro, German Martin Mendoza-Silva, Fernando Seco, Yael Landau, Revital Marbel, Boaz Ben-Moshe, Xingyu Zheng, Feng Ye, Jian Kuang, Yu Li, Xiaoji Niu, Vlad Landa, Shlomi Hacohen, Nir Shvalb, Chuanhua LuHideaki Uchiyama, Diego Thomas, Atsushi Shimada, Rin Ichiro Taniguchi, Zhenxing Ding, Feng Xu, Nikolai Kronenwett, Blagovest Vladimirov, Soyeon Lee, Eunyoung Cho, Sungwoo Jun, Changeun Lee, Sangjoon Park, Yonghyun Lee, Jehyeok Rew, Changjun Park, Hyeongyo Jeong, Jaeseung Han, Keumryeol Lee, Wenchao Zhang, Xianghong Li, Dongyan Wei, Ying Zhang, So Young Park, Chan Gook Park, Stefan Knauth, Georgios Pipelidis, Nikolaos Tsiamitros, Tomas Lungenstrass, Juan Pablo Morales, Jens Trogh, David Plets, Miroslav Opiela, Shih Hau Fang, Yu Tsao, Ying Ren Chien, Shi Shen Yang, Shih Jyun Ye, Muhammad Usman Ali, Soojung Hur, Yongwan Park

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

66 Scopus citations


The Indoor Positioning and Indoor Navigation (IPIN) conference holds an annual competition in which indoor localization systems from different research groups worldwide are evaluated empirically. The objective of this competition is to establish a systematic evaluation methodology with rigorous metrics both for real-Time (on-site) and post-processing (off-site) situations, in a realistic environment unfamiliar to the prototype developers. For the IPIN 2018 conference, this competition was held on September 22nd, 2018, in Atlantis, a large shopping mall in Nantes (France). Four competition tracks (two on-site and two off-site) were designed. They consisted of several 1 km routes traversing several floors of the mall. Along these paths, 180 points were topographically surveyed with a 10 cm accuracy, to serve as ground truth landmarks, combining theodolite measurements, differential global navigation satellite system (GNSS) and 3D scanner systems. 34 teams effectively competed. The accuracy score corresponds to the third quartile (75th percentile) of an error metric that combines the horizontal positioning error and the floor detection. The best results for the on-site tracks showed an accuracy score of 11.70 m (Track 1) and 5.50 m (Track 2), while the best results for the off-site tracks showed an accuracy score of 0.90 m (Track 3) and 1.30 m (Track 4). These results showed that it is possible to obtain high accuracy indoor positioning solutions in large, realistic environments using wearable light-weight sensors without deploying any beacon. This paper describes the organization work of the tracks, analyzes the methodology used to quantify the results, reviews the lessons learned from the competition and discusses its future.

Original languageEnglish
Article number8852722
Pages (from-to)148594-148628
Number of pages35
JournalIEEE Access
StatePublished - 2019


  • IPIN
  • competition
  • indoor positioning
  • smartphone


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