Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection

Olga Sjomina, Jelizaveta Pavlova, Yaron Niv, Marcis Leja

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

133 Scopus citations


This review provides the most recent data concerning the epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection. Overall, the trend of declining prevalence of H. pylori infection is continuing, with major evidence available from studies in Europe. However, in some parts of the world, for example, in some countries in the Middle East, the prevalence has remained relatively stable. A number of systematic reviews and meta-analyses have been published during the past year indicating the lowest prevalence rates of the infection in Oceania (24.4%), the highest in Africa (79.1%), and the global annual recurrence rate of H. pylori (4.3%). The recurrence rates were found to be directly related to the human development index and prevalence of infection. Several studies have addressed the correlation between H. pylori infection and sociodemographic conditions, source of drinking water and dietary factors. A hypothesis on the role of insects and yeasts in transmitting H. pylori has been suggested and addressed. Helicobacter sp. have been found in flow flies in Brazil. So far there is no evidence available that H. pylori may survive and persist on the outer body of the fly.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere12514
StatePublished - Sep 2018
Externally publishedYes


  • prevalence
  • recurrence
  • reservoirs
  • transmission


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