Effects of Expected Effort on Females in the Labor Market

Ori Zax, Mosi Rosenboim, Tal Shavit

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


We introduce expectations regarding the amount of exerted effort by males and females into the “standard” labor market equilibrium. Using a theoretical model, we show that the gender wage gap increases when the expected effect is incorporated into the model. Based on a survey, we find that there are inaccurate expectations regarding the amount effort exerted by males and females. We argue that biased expectations lead to paying females lower wages and a higher gender wage gap than should be expected on the basis of effort exerted. We suggest marketing females' efforts as a policy tool to counteract these biased expectations.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)107-122
Number of pages16
JournalThe Forum for Social Economics
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2014


  • Gender
  • Labor market
  • effort
  • Wage
  • Expectation


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