Effectiveness of bariatric metabolic surgery versus glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists for prevention of congestive heart failure

Yael Wolff Sagy, Gil Lavie, Noga Ramot, Erez Battat, Ronen Arbel, Orna Reges, Dror Dicker

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Abstract

Comparative evidence for the effects of bariatric metabolic surgery (BMS) and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RA) on cardiovascular outcomes is limited. Here, in an observational, retrospective cohort study, we compared the incidence of congestive heart failure (CHF) in adults living with obesity and diabetes without history of CHF (primary CHF) treated with BMS versus GLP-1RA. The population cohort comprised members of Clalit Health Services with no prior history of ischemic heart disease, ischemic stroke or CHF. During the time period of 2008–2021, patients who underwent their first BMS were matched 1:1 with patients who initiated treatment with GLP-1RA, based on clinical characteristics. The study included 2,205 matched pairs of patients (64.5% female), followed for a median of 6.6 years and up to 12 years. Primary incidence of CHF occurred in 26 (1.2%) patients treated with BMS and in 90 patients treated with GLP-1RA (4.1%) (adjusted hazard ratio 0.43, 95% confidence interval 0.27–0.68). Further adjustment for weight reduction did not significantly diminish this association (hazard ratio adjusted for weight reduction 0.48, 95% confidence interval 0.28–0.82), indicating that the differential effect was not mediated through the relative advantage of BMS in maximal weight reduction. In this study, BMS was associated with a stronger reduction in primary incidence of CHF compared with treatment with GLP-1RA. With the increasing use of highly potent next-generation GLP-1RAs, further comparative long-term studies are warranted.

Original languageEnglish
JournalNature Medicine
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2024

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