Doubly ionized ion emission in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in air

M. Gaft, L. Nagli, I. Gornushkin, Y. Groisman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


The emission from doubly ionized species in laser-induced plasmas has not been properly investigated before since most analytical measurements were made at relatively long delays. This work proves that doubly ionized species, such as boron (B) III and iron (Fe) III, can exist during the first 150-200 ns of the plasma lifetime in plasmas produced in air by typical lasers with irradiances of 109-1011 W/cm2. The emission from these ions was detected using both the double- and single-pulse excitations. The sum of the second ionization potential and the energy of corresponding excited states is approximately 30 eV. The presence of doubly charged ions in the early plasma was additionally confirmed by computer simulations using a collision-dominated plasma model. The emission from doubly ionized species may be used for analytical purpose. For example, in the spectrum from a B-Fe ore, the B III analytical line at 206.6 nm is free from Fe spectral interference thus enabling the online laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy sorting of ores into three products with high, medium, and low B2O3 contents.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3229-3237
Number of pages9
JournalAnalytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Issue number10
StatePublished - Jul 2011
Externally publishedYes


  • Boron
  • Double ionization
  • Iron
  • Online
  • Plasma
  • Sorting


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