Doing–Being and Relationship–Solitude: A Proposed Model for a Balanced Life

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


Scholars over the last several decades have theorized and presented research regarding the key components of a balanced adult life. However, attempts to integrate these components are rare. This paper offers a two-dimensional model for understanding and constructing a balanced adult life: doing–being and relationship–solitude. Thriving by active doing (mastery/accomplishment) and by relationships (collaboration/engagement in positive relationships) comprise two major elements within the common models of well-being (e.g., self-determination theory and the flourish/PERMA theoretical model). However, to live a balanced life, these two socially desirable modes of existence—doing and relationships—must be complemented by being and solitude, respectively, each commanding a markedly lower profile in the literature. The two dimensions are described, followed by a presentation of the four modes generated from these two dimensions: solitary doing, communal doing, solitary being, and communal being. The benefits of each mode are presented and implications of the proposed model are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1953-1971
Number of pages19
JournalJournal of Happiness Studies
Issue number6
StatePublished - 15 Aug 2019


  • Doing and being
  • Life balance
  • Relationship and solitude
  • Well-being


Dive into the research topics of 'Doing–Being and Relationship–Solitude: A Proposed Model for a Balanced Life'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this