Direct Assessment of Nanoconfined Water in 2D Ti 3 C 2 Electrode Interspaces by a Surface Acoustic Technique

Netanel Shpigel, Mikhael D. Levi, Sergey Sigalov, Tyler S. Mathis, Yury Gogotsi, Doron Aurbach

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

103 Scopus citations


Although significant progress has been achieved in understanding of ion-exchange mechanisms in the new family of 2D transition metal carbides and nitrides known as MXenes, direct gravimetric assessment of water insertion into the MXene interlayer spaces and mesopores has not been reported so far. Concurrently, the latest research on MXene and Birnessite electrodes shows that nanoconfined water dramatically improves their gravimetric capacity and rate capability. Hence, quantification of the amount of confined water in solvated electrodes is becoming an important goal of energy-related research. Using the recently developed and highly sensitive method of in situ hydrodynamic spectroscopy (based on surface-acoustic probing of solvated interfaces), we provide clear evidence that typical cosmotropic cations (Li + , Mg 2+ , and Al 3+ ) are inserted into the MXene interspaces in their partially hydrated form, in contrast to the insertion of chaotropic cations (Cs + and TEA + ), which effectively dehydrate the MXene. These new findings provide important information about the charge-storage mechanisms in layered materials by direct quantification and efficient control (management) over the amount of confined fluid in a variety of solvated battery/supercapacitor electrodes. We believe that the proposed monitoring of water content as a function of the nature of ions can be equally applied to solvated biointerfaces, such as the ion channels of membrane proteins.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)8910-8917
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of the American Chemical Society
Issue number28
StatePublished - 18 Jul 2018
Externally publishedYes


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