Differential conditions for early after-depolarizations and triggered activity in cardiomyocytes derived from transgenic LQT1 and LQT2 rabbits

Gong Xin Liu, Bum Rak Choi, Ohad Ziv, Weiyan Li, Enno de Lange, Zhilin Qu, Gideon Koren

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102 Scopus citations


Early after-depolarization (EAD), or abnormal depolarization during the plateau phase of action potentials, is a hallmark of long-QT syndrome (LQTS). More than 13 genes have been identified as responsible for LQTS, and elevated risks for EADs may depend on genotypes, such as exercise in LQT1 vs. sudden arousal in LQT2 patients. We investigated mechanisms underlying different high-risk conditions that trigger EADs using transgenic rabbit models of LQT1 and LQT2, which lack I Ks and I Kr (slow and fast components of delayed rectifying K + current), respectively. Single-cell patch-clamp studies show that prolongation of action potential duration (APD) can be further enhanced by lowering extracellular potassium concentration ([K +] o) from 5.4 to 3.6 mm. However, only LQT2 myocytes developed spontaneous EADs following perfusion with lower [K +] o, while there was no EAD formation in littermate control (LMC) or LQT1 myocytes, although APDs were also prolonged in LMC myocytes and LQT1 myocytes. Isoprenaline (ISO) prolonged APDs and triggered EADs in LQT1 myocytes in the presence of lower [K +] o. In contrast, continuous ISO perfusion diminished APD prolongation and reduced the incidence of EADs in LQT2 myocytes. These different effects of ISO on LQT1 and LQT2 were verified by optical mapping of the whole heart, suggesting that ISO-induced EADs are genotype specific. Further voltage-clamp studies revealed that ISO increases L-type calcium current (I Ca) faster than I Ks (time constant 9.2 s for I Ca and 43.6 s for I Ks), and computer simulation demonstrated a high-risk window of EADs in LQT2 during ISO perfusion owing to mismatch in the time courses of I Ca and I Ks, which may explain why a sympathetic surge rather than high sympathetic tone can be an effective trigger of EADs in LQT2 perfused hearts. In summary, EAD formation is genotype specific, such that EADs can be elicited in LQT2 myocytes simply by lowering [K +] o, while LQT1 myocytes require sympathetic stimulation. Slower activation of I Ks than of I Ca by ISO may explain why different sympathetic modes, i.e. sympathetic surge vs. high sympathetic tone, are associated with polymorphic ventricular tachycardia in LQTS patients.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1171-1180
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Physiology
Issue number5
StatePublished - Feb 2012
Externally publishedYes


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