Core temperature measurement: Methods and current insights

Daniel S. Moran, Liran Mendal

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

215 Scopus citations


Climatic injuries, including hypothermia, hyperthermia and heat stroke, are common in many sports activities. Body core temperature (To) measurement for the sportsperson can influence individual performance and may help to prevent injuries. Monitoring internal body To accurately requires invasive methods of measurement. The mercury thermometer, most commonly used to measure oral temperature (Toral), has been almost exclusively the only instrument for measuring Tc since the 18th century. Rectal (Tre) and oesophageal temperatures (Toes) have been the most preferred measurement sites employed in thermoregulatory investigations. However, these measurement sites (Tre, Toes, Toral), and the methods used to measure Tc at these sites, are not convenient. Toral measurements are not always possible or accurate. Toes is undesirable because of the difficulty of inserting the thermistor, irritation to nasal passages and general subject discomfort. Tre is not suitable under many circumstances as it is labour intensive and has a prolonged response time. However, Tre remains the most accurately available method for monitoring Tc in thermal illness that occurs during sports activities. In addition, Tre and Toes require wire connections between the thermistor and the monitoring device. The purpose of this paper is to review the various existing methods of Tc measurements in order to focus on the breakthrough needed for a simple, noninvasive, universally used device for Tc measurement which is essential for preventing climatic injuries during sports events.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)879-885
Number of pages7
JournalSports Medicine
Issue number14
StatePublished - 2002
Externally publishedYes


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