Comparison of abiraterone acetate versus ketoconazole in patients with metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer refractory to docetaxel

Avivit Peer, Maya Gottfried, Victoria Sinibaldi, Michael A. Carducci, Mario A. Eisenberger, Avishay Sella, Raya Leibowitz-Amit, Raanan Berger, Daniel Keizman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


BACKGROUND: Abiraterone, a potent CYP 17 inhibitor, is standard treatment in docetaxel refractory, metastatic castrate resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). However, in countries where abiraterone has not been approved yet, or for patients who cannot afford it, ketoconazole is used as an alternative CYP 17 inhibitor. Although preclinical data suggests that ketoconazole is a less potent inhibitor of CYP 17, there are limited clinical data comparing both agents. We aimed to compare the clinical effectiveness of abiraterone versus ketoconazole in docetaxel refractory mCRPC. METHODS: Records from mCRPC patients treated with ketoconazole (international multicenter database, n = 162) were reviewed retrospectively. Twenty-six patients treated post docetaxel were individually matched by clinicopathologic factors to patients treated with abiraterone (national multicenter database, n=140). We compared the PSA response, biochemical and radiological progression free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) between the groups. PFS and OS were determined by Cox regression. RESULTS: The groups were matched by Gleason score, pre-treatment disease extent, ECOG PS, pre-treatment risk category (Keizman, Oncologist 2012). Furthermore, they were balanced regarding other known confounding risk factors. In the groups of abiraterone versus ketoconazole, PSA response was 46% versus 19% (OR 4.3, P=0.04), median biochemical PFS 7 versus 2 months (HR 1.54, P=0.02), median radiological PFS 8 versus 2.5 months (HR 1.8, P=0.043), median OS 19 versus 11 months (HR 0.53, P=0.79), and treatment interruption d/t severe adverse events 8% (n=2) versus 31% (n=8) (0R 0.6, P=0.023). CONCLUSIONS: In docetaxel refractory mCRPC, the outcome of abiraterone treatment may be superior to ketoconazole. Prostate 74:433-440, 2014.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)433-440
Number of pages8
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • Abiraterone
  • Ketoconazole
  • Metastatic castration resistant and docetaxel refractory prostate cancer
  • Outcome


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