Chiral Transplacental Pharmacokinetics of Fexofenadine: Impact of P-Glycoprotein Inhibitor Fluoxetine Using the Human Placental Perfusion Model

Leonardo Pinto, Priya Bapat, Fernanda de Lima Moreira, Angelika Lubetsky, Ricardo de Carvalho Cavalli, Howard Berger, Vera Lucia Lanchote, Gideon Koren

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations

Abstract

Purpose: Fexofenadine is a well-identified in vivo probe substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and/or organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP). This work aimed to investigate the transplacental pharmacokinetics of fexofenadine enantiomers with and without the selective P-gp inhibitor fluoxetine. Methods: The chiral transplacental pharmacokinetics of fexofenadine-fluoxetine interaction was determined using the ex vivo human placenta perfusion model (n = 4). In the Control period, racemic fexofenadine (75 ng of each enantiomer/ml) was added in the maternal circuit. In the Interaction period, racemic fluoxetine (50 ng of each enantiomer/mL) and racemic fexofenadine (75 ng of each enantiomer/mL) were added to the maternal circulation. In both periods, maternal and fetal perfusate samples were taken over 90 min. Results: The (S)-(−)- and (R)-(+)-fexofenadine fetal-to-maternal ratio values in Control and Interaction periods were similar (~0.18). The placental transfer rates were similar between (S)-(−)- and (R)-(+)-fexofenadine in both Control (0.0024 vs 0.0019 min−1) and Interaction (0.0019 vs 0.0021 min−1) periods. In both Control and Interaction periods, the enantiomeric fexofenadine ratios [R-(+)/S-(−)] were approximately 1. Conclusions: Our study showed a low extent, slow rate of non-enantioselective placental transfer of fexofenadine enantiomers, indicating a limited fetal fexofenadine exposure mediated by placental P-gp and/or OATP2B1. The fluoxetine interaction did not affect the non-enantioselective transplacental transfer of fexofenadine. The ex vivo placental perfusion model accurately predicts in vivo placental transfer of fexofenadine enantiomers with remarkably similar values (~0.17), and thus estimates the limited fetal exposure.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)647-655
Number of pages9
JournalPharmaceutical Research
Volume38
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 2021

Keywords

  • drug transporters
  • fexofenadine
  • fluoxetine
  • placenta
  • pregnancy

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