An exploration of 3D spatial training in teams with a remotely controlled robotic system

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Nowadays, more sophisticated tasks such as teleoperations in surgery are being conducted by robots, which require operators' high-level spatial and team skills. Spatial skills and shared task representations in teams are critical in successfully elaborating decision-relevant information in order to work together seamlessly on complex spatial tasks. In this study, we designed and implemented an innovative remotely controlled robotic system to address this challenge, in addition to a computer simulation system as a control group. We also conducted a set of experiments by randomly assigning 418 participants in teams to both systems in order to examine the effectiveness of the robotic system. The results indicate that the robotic system is as effective as the computer simulation system, and the shared task representations negatively affected training outcomes on robotic training teams. Lastly, we discuss our findings, study implications and future research.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)338-355
Number of pages18
JournalInternational Journal of Learning Technology
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2014


  • Computer simulation
  • Decision making
  • Internet-based tools
  • Robotics
  • Shared task representations
  • Spatial skills
  • Spatial training
  • Teams


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